English to communicate with slaves of other ethnic and linguistic origins. Additionally, some new words and collocations have emerged from the language, which come from the need to express concepts specific to the culture of the nation (e.g. Doi :.1016/B /04257-7. An infinitive form, that uses the plain form of the verb and the preposition to, is used for verbal clauses that are syntactically subordinate to a finite verbal clause. Having been the centre of Danish occupation during the Viking Invasions, Northern English dialects, particularly the Yorkshire dialect, retain Norse features not found in other English varieties.
"Estuary English Q and A - JCW". In the countries of the EU, English is the most widely spoken foreign language in nineteen of the twenty-five member states where it is not an official language (that is, the countries other than the UK, Ireland and Malta ). Retrieved uman Development in India: Challenges for a Society in Transition (PDF). The most commonly used words in English are West Germanic. (Earlier English did not use the word "do" as a general auxiliary as Modern English does; at first it was only used in question constructions, and even then was not obligatory. Estimates of the numbers of second language and foreign-language English speakers vary greatly from 470 million to more than 1,000 million, depending on how proficiency is defined. "Do You Speak American: What Lies Ahead".
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Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. 112 113 David Crystal claimed in 2004 that, combining native and non-native speakers, India now has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world, but the number of English speakers in India is very. Such instruction greatly reduces the risk of children experiencing reading difficulties in English. English used to have parity with French and German in scientific research, but now it dominates that field. Through the use of these complex sentence constructions with informationally vacuous subjects, English is able to maintain both a topic-comment sentence structure and a SVO syntax. "English in East Africa". Retrieved 16 February 2015. Native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of English (not counted in this chart). It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. Some traits typical of Germanic languages persist in English, such meilleur site de rencontre sexe site rencontre libertine
as the distinction between irregularly inflected strong stems inflected through ablaut (i.e. They can also include modifiers such as adjectives (e.g. In a single-syllable word, a vowel before a fortis stop is shortened: thus nip has a noticeably shorter vowel (phonetically, but not phonemically) than nib nb ( see below ). Futurity of action is expressed periphrastically with one of the auxiliary verbs will or shall. (See Dialects, accents, and varieties, below.) The phonetic symbols used below are from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Although the great influence of these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of Modern English is widely acknowledged, most specialists in language contact do not consider English to be a true mixed language.